District Profile

Ghazipur district is situated in eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. The total area of the district is 3377 sq km with total population of 30.37 lakh with density of population as 899 persons per sq km. The district has 16 blocks viz. Zakhniya, Manihari, Sadat Saidpur, Devkali, Virnao, Mardh, Ghazipur, Karanda, Kasimabad, Varachavar, Mohammadabad, Bhavarkol, Jamania, Reotipur and Bhadaura. The district has 3364 villages and there are three rivers in the district viz. Ganga, Gomti and Karmnara. The net sown area is 2.54 lakh ha with the cropping intensity of 161.45%. Including the seasons of kharif, rabi and zaid, a total area of 4.36 lakh ha is put under various crops such as wheat, rice, pulses, sugarcane and oilseeds, potato, vegetables, onion, tomato, chilli and banana etc. The district has a large number of cold storages spread in five blocks of the district that provide easy access to farmers for storing potato.


Map Of Ghazipur District


Map Of Block Of Ghazipur District


Land Use Pattern (Area 000ha)

Geographical Area 333.214
Cultivable Area 254.711
Forest Area 0.121
Land Under Non-Ag Use 48.667
Permanent Postures 0.803
Cultivable Waste Land 3.539
Land Under Misc. Tree Crops and Grover 3.382
Barren and Uncultivable Land 3.015
Current Fallows 15.341
Others Fallows 3.635

Agricultural Land in Use

S.N.Particulars Area (000ha)
Net Sown Area 254.711
Area Sown more than Once 157.023
Gross Cropped Area 411.734
Net Irrigated Area 218.402
Gross Irrigated 350.281
Rainfed 36.309

Land Holding

Category of land holding Total no of farm/house hold
Marginal 331320
Small 43369
Medium & Large 23071
Total 397787
Average Land Holding 0.7
   

Cropping Intensity: 161.45 %


Area under different crops of Ghazipur district

S.N. Crop Area (ha) Productivity(q/ha)
1 Paddy 151.654 21.62
2 Wheat 169.658 24.27
3 Maize 753 14.04
4 Jowar 2.785 14.74
5 Bajra 131.89 14.16
6 Urd 610 8.6
7 Moong 260 1.99
8 Arhar 41950 10.14
9 Groundnut 200 5.98
10 Til 200 1.54
11 Barley 71043 1665
12 Gram 21680 864
13 Pea 71849 1069
14 Masoor 101848 0.905
15 Mustard 0.01392 1031
16 Alsi 100 4.00
17 Sugarcane 71422 45523

Major Cropping System

  1. Rice - Wheat - Fallow
  2. Rice - wheat - Urd
  3. Rice - Wheat - Mung
  4. Rice - Pea, Gram, Lentil, Mustard
  5. Arhar + Jowar - fallow
  6. Arhar + jowar + Urd
  7. Arhar + Jowar + Moong
  8. Bajra - Wheat
  9. Bajra - Rabi Pulses
  10. Pigeon Pea - Rice - Wheat (Two - Year)

Source of Irrigation

S.N.Particulars Area (000ha)
Canal 50.465
Tanks -
Borewells 167.937

Demographic Profile of Ghazipur District

No of Blocks 16
No of Village 3364
Gram Panchayat 1050
Total Population 30.3758 lakh
No of Revenue Village 2665
   

Agro-ecological Situation

Based upon soil type, soil depth, soil topography and variability of canal irrigation, Ghazipur district has been divided into three major agro-ecological situations. There are a total 16 blocks in Ghazipur district. The details about the type of agro-ecological situation and its characteristics.

AES - I

This situation is in western south part of district including Saidpur, Sadar, Karanda, Manihari and Deokali having only 29.28% of geographical area.

AES - II

This situation is observed in the northern part of district including Sadat, Jakhania, Birno, Mardah and Kasimabad block having only 29.99% of geographical area.

AES - III

This situation is spread over Zamania, Rewatipur, Mohammadabad, Barachawar, Bhawarkol and Bhadaura blick situated in eastern part of the district. The soils in this situation are predominantly low land. Major area of Karail is under Massor, Gram and vegetables.


Details of Soil of the District

Soil Type : Clay Loam, Sandy Loam, Diara Soil (Silt), Balck Soil (Karail Soil)


Slope:

(i) Plain alluvial, very deep soil having 0-1% slope, loam to silt loam soiltexture slightly eroded soil: This situation is in the western-south part of the district including Saidpur, Sadar, Karanda, Manihari and Deokali having only 29.28% of the geographical area. The details of this situation are described under agroclimatic zones.

(ii) Plain alluvial, slightly saline and alkali loam to silt loam, 0.1% slightly eroded soil and imperfectly drained soil because calciumcarbonate ‘Kankar’ pan: This situation is observed in the northern part of district including Sadat, Jakhania, Birno, Mardah and Kasimabad block having only 29.99% of geographical area.

(iii) Karail Soil: This situation is spread Zamania, Rewatipur, Mohammadabad, Barachawar and Bhadaura block situated in eastern part of the district. The soil in this situation are predominated low land, major area of Karail is under lentil, gram and vegetables.


Soil of Agro-ecological situation with representative blocks of district

S.N. Description Block Covered
1 Plain, alluvial soil 0-1%, slope, very deep loam to silt loam soil: soil texture, slightly eroded soil, medium rainfall, tubewell, canal irrigation Sadar, Karanda, Saidpur, Deokali, Manihari
2 Plain alluvial soil, slightly saline alkali soil, loam to silt loam sil, 0-1% slope, slightly eroded soil, medium rainfall, tubewell and canal irrigation Birno, Sadat, Mardah, Kasimabad and Jakhania
3 Water logged karail very deel clay loam to silty clay loam, 1-3% slope, medium rainfall, canal tubewell irrigation, slightly eroded irrigation Bhawarkol, Mohammadabad, Barachawar, Bhadaura, Jamania and Rewatipur

Topography : Rice-Wheat cropping system is pre-dominated; temperature varies from 4 to 46.6 degree C maximum from winter to summer. Annual precipitation varies from 800mm to 1034 mm. Paddy crop suffer when October month of Hathia nakshatra. This failure also affects the succeeding Rabi crops and cropping system. Major crops are paddy, maize, pigeon pea, jowar and Bajra in Kharif season wheat, barley, lentil, toria, mustard, field pea and winter vegetables in Rabi season.

Land use Pattern : About 99.06% of total geographical area is cultivable out of total area is 76.3 per cent is net sown area, 0.2% is grass land, 0.9% is uncultivable fallow land, 1.1% is fellow land, 4.7% is current fallow area, 1.0% area of under trees and bushes, remaining 14.6% area is under non agricultural use.


S.N. Categories of Land Holding Total No of Land Holds
1 Marginal holdings 331320
2 Small Holdings 43369
3 Medium and Large Holdings 23071
Total 397787
Average Land Holding 0.693 = 0.7

Land Use Pattern of the Ghazipur

S.N. Name of Block Geographical Area Cultivated Land Cultivable Waste Current Fallows Forest (Reserves) Forest (open) Posture Land Put to Non - Ag Use Land Under Misc. Plantation Barren and Uncultivable Land (Waste Land)
1 Jakhania 20377 15438 436 975 278 90 2724 107 136
2 Manihari 22544 17007 492 1032 345 125 2926 148 210
3 Sadat 22389 16129 518 1757 409 191 2822 101 238
4 Saidpur 21778 15770 318 1473 279 118 3236 178 286
5 Deokali 21999 16495 222 1132 236 62 3119 136 264
6 Birno 15477 12741 157 626 144 39 1452 86 151
7 Mardah 18672 14712 387 831 289 72 1911 111 232
8 Ghazipur 15660 11136 170 503 131 6 3101 131 157
9 Karanda 15561 11449 119 649 376 5 2423 175 121
10 Kasimabad 23034 18196 231 893 325 40 2543 301 377
11 Barachawar 19901 18328 115 467 152 46 9094 403 174
12 Mohammadabad 17349 14148 104 442 169 4 2006 222 133
13 Bhawarkole 25114 19659 36 1609 195 0 3874 371 177
14 Zamania 27074 20549 146 763 587 5 4128 210 81
15 Rewatipur 22590 17240 92 1229 289 1 3348 248 87
16 Bhadaura 20557 15250 267 969 56 3 3125 367 405

Information on Operational Land Holdings

92 per cent of the land holdings are dominated by small and marginal farmers

S.N. Block Total Holdings Large (Nos) Area Small (Nos) Area Marginal (Nos) Area Landless (Nos)
1 Jakhania 27454 369 1080 7963 8312 18022 6046 1101
2 Manihari 28985 290 586 8985 10167 18840 4254 870
3 Sadat 27692 277 558 9062 10763 17446 4808 907
4 Saidpur 25491 257 524 8133 9074 16314 6172 785
5 Deokali 29042 261 532 9522 10302 18442 5661 817
6 Birno 18812 175 562 5740 5877 12171 6502 726
7 Mardah 20117 203 411 6069 6582 13935 7719 910
8 Ghazipur 18015 187 387 5705 7184 11061 3565 1062
9 Karanda 13826 145 293 4131 6920 8918 4236 632
10 Kasimabad 24389 243 507 6722 10611 15877 7078 1547
11 Barachawar 16988 167 349 4762 9775 10906 6204 1153
12 Mohammadabad 18840 217 477 6230 8012 11850 5609 543
13 Bhawarkole 15196 169 373 4514 10833 9862 8453 651
14 Zamania 18722 87 212 5733 10844 12350 9493 632
15 Rewatipur 11977 63 152 3552 6606 8605 10482 747
16 Bhadaura 12638 93 207 3143 6898 4867 8145 935

Soil Health:

However, the soils in Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Varanasi, Deorai and Gorakhpur districts rated low in organic matter, low in available nitrogen, low in available phosphorus and medium in potassium, low in Zn status with the increasing population pressure on agriculture has been increased tremendously. To increase production more and more chemical fertilizer, chemical pesticides were used that adversely affected not only environment but the soil health also. In Ghazipur district 214207ha land is under irrigation, normally is common areas farmers preferred rice cultivation continuously same land. The soil analysis report of the samples analyzed by the district soil survey and soil testing laboratory Ghazipur indicated more than 70% samples are deficient in organic carbon and 80% of samples are deficient in phosphrous. On the basis of samples analyzed during the year 2008-13 indicated 99% of the soil samples ranges between pH 6.5-8.5 and electrical conductivity of 95%. Sample ranges 0-1 improvement in soil health through exclusion of green manure, legume crops, vermi-compost, compost, farm yard manure, bio-fertlizer and crop rotation, soil type clay loam, sandy loam, diera soil (silt), black soil (Karail region). Agricultural innovation partnership the continuity of paddy-wheat crop rotation and including pulses to improve soil health through nitrogen fixation. Chronic arsen poisoing can cause serious health problem in animal including human such as soil and water samples taken from eastern district of Ballia and Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh.

Soil health is a state of soil meeting its range of ecosystem function a appropriate to its environment. Soil is the foundation of any farming system. Having healthy soil in essential for growing healthy crops and feeding a healthy diet to livestock and people, Soil health is the condition of soil in a defined space and at a defined scale relative to a described bench mark. The definition of soil health may vary between users of the term as alternative users may place different priorities upon the multiple function of a soil. Therefore, the term soil health can only be understood within the context of the use of term and their aspirations of soil as well as by the boundary definition of the soil at issue.


Gap in Technology

  • Farmers are not convinced about importance of soil and water testing
  • No awareness about soil fertility index
  • No technical knowledge about taking soil and water samples
  • No technical knowledge for understanding of analyzer report
  • Decreasing carbon content of cultivable land
  • Deterioration of soil physical properties
  • Accumulation of hazardous element in the soil
  • Poor drainage of soil
  • Deficiency of micronutrients in soil components

  • Reason for Non - Adoption

  • Lack of availability
  • Lack of knowledge
  • Lack of resources

  • Proposed Strategy

  • Promoting fertilizer application after soil testing
  • Collection of special soil samples and water samples from old orchards
  • Organizing farmers training on farmers’ field
  • Educating farmers about importance of organic and bio-fertilizer
  • Educating farmers about method of fertilizer application
  • Collection of soil samples from each villages

  • Organic Farming:

    Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on technique such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control. Depending on whose definition is used. Organic farming uses fertilizer and pesticides (Which include herbicide, insecticide and fungicides). Organic farming uses a variety of methods to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping, reduced tillage and application of compost.


    Gap in Technology

  • Low availability of organic fertilizers
  • Poor method of composting
  • Lack of technical knowledge of preparation
  • Lack of standardized recommended package of practices for organic production
  • Lack of standardization of ITK’s for low plant protection measures
  • No retailing outlets for organically crop produce
  • No certifying agency in the district
  • No any facility for organic certification

  • Reason for Non - Adoption

  • Lack of availability
  • Lack of knowledge

  • Proposed Strategy

  • Training on compost pit preparation, vermi-compost and NADEP unit etc
  • Formation of group
  • Promoting farmers for organic input production
  • Promoting farmers for organic crop production
  • Promoting farmers for group for organic certifications

  • Organic Farming:

    Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on technique such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control. Depending on whose definition is used. Organic farming uses fertilizer and pesticides (Which include herbicide, insecticide and fungicides). Organic farming uses a variety of methods to improve soil fertility including crop rotation, cover cropping, reduced tillage and application of compost.


    Information of Problem Soils in the District

    S.N. Problem Soil Area in ha Extent of Severity
    1 Saline Soil - Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    2 Alkaline Soil 2993 Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    3 Acidic - Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    4 Soil Erosion 9842 Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    5 Iron Toxicity - Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    6 Micro - Nutrient Deficiency 87347 Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    7 Water Logged Condition 9663 Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -
    8 Other Barrend Land / Waste Land 1257 Very Severe : -
    Severe : -
    Mild : -

    Information of Soils of the District

    S.N. Block Loam Silt Loam Silt Clay Loam
    1 Jakhania Area : 3353
    % :21.72
    Area : 10212
    % :66.14
    Area : 1677
    % :10.86
    2 Manihari Area : 4559
    % : 27
    Area : 11313
    % :67
    Area : 797
    % : 4.72
    3 Sadat Area : 5387
    % : 33
    Area : 9631
    % : 59
    Area : 1073
    % : 6.57
    4 Saidpur Area : 10957
    % : 69
    Area : 1116
    % : 7
    Area :
    % :
    5 Deokali Area :5714
    % : 34
    Area :8186
    % : 48.71
    Area :1015
    % : 6.04
    6 Birno Area : 2898
    % : 23
    Area : 7182
    % : 57
    Area : 117
    % : 00.93
    7 Mardah Area : 2501
    % : 17
    Area : 8974
    % : 61
    Area : 3119
    % : 21.20
    8 Ghazipur Area : 8129
    % : 73
    Area : 2693
    % : 24.18
    Area :
    % :
    9 Karanda Area : 4236
    % : 37
    Area : 1127
    % : 9.84
    Area :
    % :
    10 Kasimabad Area : 3093
    % : 17
    Area : 3712
    % : 20.49
    Area : 11133
    % : 61.18
    11 Barachawar Area : 4327
    % : 26.5
    Area : 2112
    % : 12.93
    Area : 3721
    % : 22.79
    12 Mohammadabad Area : 3227
    % : 22.81
    Area : 1117
    % : 7.90
    Area :
    % :
    13 Bhawarkole Area : 1965
    % : 10.0
    Area :
    % :
    Area : 10512
    % : 5347
    14 Zamania Area : 2054
    % : 10
    Area : 1326
    % : 6.45
    Area : 11623
    % : 56.56
    15 Rewatipur Area : 5714
    % : 33.14
    Area :
    % :
    Area :
    % :
    16 Bhadaura Area : 917
    % : 6.01
    Area :
    % :
    Area : 9654
    % : 63.30